The TRESSPASS project will develop a single cohesive risk-based border management concept, and perform three pivoting pilot demonstrators including air, maritime and land (including car and train) border crossing points, specifically travel routes that combine different modalities. It excludes border crossings outside of border crossing points, such as happens with boats of refugees on the Mediterranean. With regards to threats, this includes smuggling, irregular immigration, cross border crime, and terrorism, including threats to the transport itself (so, including e.g. aviation security). It excludes other threats such as posed by state-actors. TRESSPASS includes all tiers of the four-tier access model: (1) measures undertaken in, or jointly with third countries or service providers; (2) cooperation with neighbouring countries; (3) border control and counter-smuggling measures, and (4) control measures within the area of free movement.